Leadership and implementation of the Act



Policy Recommendations


Welsh Government should..


Approach all procurement decisions through the lens of the Act – by applying the Five Ways of Working, considering their well-being objectives and/or steps and how to maximise contribution to the seven well-being goals at the very beginning of the process even at pre-procurement stage.


Provide clear evidence for how their procurement activities are supporting the delivery of their well-being objectives.


Explore how they can use budgets to give greater long-term financial certainty to other public and voluntary sector bodies to ease the short-termism challenges faced by procurement. This could include facilitating longer-term (minimum 5 years) contracts with break clauses built in to allow ongoing flexibility.


Provide clear guidance and leadership to other public bodies, as well as monitoring and assessing how they are considering the Act in their procurement activities.


Include specific contract clauses linked to well-being objectives/goals in every public sector contract and framework, using social value measures to capture impact.


Below are the areas I recommend that all public bodies, including Welsh Government, should focus on:


・Develop leadership that supports a strategic approach to procurement, recognising the ‘power of purchase’

・Procuring well-being: a focus on outcomes and measuring what matters



・Focussing on longer-term financial planning


・Promote effective collaboration, with each other and suppliers to improve sharing, learning, capacity and skills


・Build on established frameworks, including legal


  • Deliver a just transition
  • 公正な移行を実現する
  • Implement solutions at scale to achieve multiple benefits
  • 複数の利益を得るために、規模に応じたソリューションを導入する
  • Invest more in tackling the Climate Emergency
  • 気候変動による緊急事態に対応するための投資を拡大する

Advice on setting well-being objectives for all public bodies and boards covered by the Well-being of Future Generations Act (including Welsh Government)


Please refer to the chapter on Setting Good Well-being Objectives, but in setting their objectives specifically in relation to decarbonisation all public bodies and boards covered by the Well-being of Future Generations Act (including Welsh Government) should:


  • Ensure that all well-being objectives, including those relating to jobs, skills and health, seek opportunities to contribute to reducing emissions and consider the impacts of climate change.
  • 雇用、技能、健康に関連するものを含むすべての幸福目標が、排出量削減に貢献する機会を求め、気候変動の影響を考慮するようにする。
  • In setting well-being objectives, public bodies should ensure they have a significant focus on decarbonisation. They should also ensure that decarbonisation is a key consideration in all objectives that have been set, and in taking steps to meet all well-being objectives.
  • 公共機関は、福祉目標を設定する際に、脱炭素化に大きな焦点を当てるようにすべきである。また、設定されたすべての目標、およびすべての幸福目標を達成するための措置において、脱炭素化が重要な考慮事項となるようにする必要がある。
  • Accelerate their action on reducing emissions, helping meet Wales’ target of a carbon-neutral public sector by 2030. This means mapping the areas over which you have control, and which have the biggest emissions, and having a plan in place to reduce them. Immediate areas of focus should include carbon reduction through procurement, ultra-low emissions vehicles (fleet), buildings, fossil fuel divestment, decarbonising heat, transport and tourism. (Also a recommendation in the section on A Prosperous Wales in Chapter 3.)
  • 排出量削減のための行動を加速させ、2030年までに公共部門をカーボンニュートラルにするというウェールズの目標達成を支援します。これは、あなたがコントロールできる領域で、最も大きな排出量を持つものをマッピングし、それを削減するための計画を持つことを意味します。当面の重点分野としては、調達、超低排出ガス車(フリート)、建物、化石燃料の売却、熱の脱炭素化、輸送、観光を通じた炭素削減が挙げられる。(第3章のA Prosperous Walesの項でも推奨されている)。

In moments of crisis, only imagination is more important than knowledge.




Where are we now? My assessment of Decarbonsation:


Welsh Government monitors the level and sources of emissions in Wales at a national level, but there isn’t sufficient focus on how all sectors, organisations and individuals across Wales can support our carbon reduction targets.


Emissions from transport sector aren’t reducing quickly enough so there needs to be more support and investment in active travel and public transport as the transport sector accounts for 14% of Wales’ greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced only by around 3% since 1990.


Many public bodies are mapping emissions in respect of energy consumption and many in respect of their estate and operations more generally, however this only accounts for a proportion of their emissions and these need to be expanded to cover transport, procurement and land use. For example, Natural Resources Wales and NHS Wales Shared Services Partnership calculated that between 50 and 60% of their emissions were a result of the procurement of goods and services.

多くの公共機関は、エネルギー消費に関する排出量を算出しており、不動産や業務に関する排出量も算出しているが、これは排出量の一部でしかなく、輸送、調達、土地利用などにまで拡大する必要がある。例えば、Natural Resources WalesとNHS Wales Shared Services Partnershipは、排出量の50-60%が商品とサービスの調達によるものであると計算している。

Well-being objectives and steps set by public bodies and Public Services Boards must match the public’s increasing awareness and expectation around the nature and climate crises. For example, there are 68 well-being objectives or steps (out of a total of 295) set by 33 public bodies that broadly relate to the natural environment; however these objectives do not always translate into action in other policy areas such as decarbonisation.

公共団体や公共サービス委員会が設定する福祉目的や 手順は、自然や気候の危機に対する国民の認識や期 待の高まりと合致していなければならない。例えば、33の公共団体が設定した68の幸福目標やステップ(合計295のうち)は、広く自然環境と関連しているが、これらの目標は、脱炭素化など他の政策分野での行動には必ずしも反映されていない。

Over half of Wales’ emissions are currently derived from the power and industry sectors so decarbonising these sectors will have significant impacts on people and communities. For example, although Wales’ low carbon economy is currently estimated to consist of 9,000 businesses employing 13,000 people, it is worth remembering the outcomes of previous ‘unjust transitions’ such as the closure of the South Wales coalfields in the 1980s.


The Welsh Government has made an important commitment to establish a Climate Justice Advisory Group but this needs to be done as a matter of urgency.

ウェールズ政府は、Climate Justice Advisory Groupの設立を重要な約束としていますが、これは緊急の課題として行われる必要があります。

The links between climate change and public health are becoming increasingly clear and are being recognised by some health bodies. For example, Public Health Wales and Welsh Government are considering the impact of climate change on health.


There are promising signs of progress on the shift to clean energy, but all opportunities should be embraced if Wales is to meet its targets. Scale and pace of progress by Welsh Government and Public Bodies will need to be increased significantly during the next decade if we are to achieve progress towards our more ambitious targets, including achieving a carbon-neutral public sector by 2030. Encouraging progress includes UK’s emissions declining by around 38% since 1990 - faster than any other major developed country, and a transformation in our electricity system away from fossil fuels to renewables; however our emissions are not declining quickly enough in sectors such as transport and housing.


There have been positive developments in the social housing sector with innovative approaches to building low carbon homes, but we are still building homes in Wales which are not carbon-neutral, which means our ambition on decarbonising homes is not matched by actions.


The publication of Planning Policy Wales 10 is a significant step in the right direction, but the focus must now be on ensuring consistent implementation to ensure land use planning supports targets to reduce emissions. Please see planning section in Chapter 5 for more information.


Young people have made a significant impact on securing action on climate change in Wales. The Welsh Fridays for Future movement and climate strikes alongside work of the Youth Parliament and many other children and young people campaigning and lobbying politicians has been one of the most significant areas where future generations themselves are holding politicians to account and forcing action.

若者たちは、ウェールズにおける気候変動に対する行動の確保に大きな影響を及ぼしてきました。ウェールズの「Fridays for Future」運動や気候変動ストライキは、若者議会やその他多くの子どもたちや若者たちが政治家に対してキャンペーンやロビー活動を行う中で、未来の世代自身が政治家の責任を追及し、行動を起こすための最も重要な分野の一つとなっています。

Young People are now demanding greater action and climate justice, calling on global leaders to take urgent action.


Welsh Government is beginning to take action to address the climate and nature crisis together. For example, their recent commitment to develop a National Forest for Wales and the Plant! scheme set up in 2008.


Despite the commitment to a carbon-neutral public sector by 2030, less than half of public bodies have a specific well-being objective or step on decarbonisation or reducing their emissions. In contrast, the vast majority of Public Services Boards do. For example, decarbonisation is reflected across 34 well-being objectives or steps of 20 of the 44 public bodies and 13 of the 19 Public Service Boards.


Decisions made as part of the annual budget process should be supported by transparent assessments of carbon impact so that people can clearly understand whether funding is leading to an increase or decrease in emissions. For example, Welsh Government should articulate how actions in key plans such as ‘Prosperity for all: Low Carbon Wales’ will be funded and the investment needed in relation to achieving targets to reduce emissions from sectors such as transport and buildings.

年次予算プロセスの一環として行われる決定は、炭素への影響に関する透明性のある評価によって支援されるべきであり、資金提供が排出量の増加につながるか減少につながるかを人々が明確に理解できるようにする必要があります。例えば、ウェールズ政府は、「すべての人に繁栄を」のような重要な計画における行動がどのように資金調達されるかを明確に示すべきである。例えば、ウェールズ政府は、「万人のための繁栄:低炭素ウェールズ(Low Carbon Wales)」のような主要計画の行動がどのように資金調達され、運輸や建物などのセクターからの排出量削減目標達成に関連して必要な投資が行われるかを明確にすべきである。

Welsh Government have increased direct funding for the climate and nature emergencies by £140 million, but it is clear that they will need to invest more in funding action if they are to meet their carbon reduction targets.


Action reflecting the urgency of tackling climate change was lacking but this has been more evident in the last year since the declaration of a climate emergency by Welsh Government and a number of local authorities. However, it is concerning that Welsh Government are still not able to comprehensively explain the carbon impact of their spending decisions. It remains the case that Welsh Government is not assessing the net carbon impact of budget decisions.


All public bodies need to take action to divest their pension funds from fossil fuels. Some councils, including Swansea, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Monmouthshire and Powys have voted for the divestment of their funds from fossil fuels, but the final decision needs to be taken by the Fund Trustees.

すべての公的機関は、年金基金の化石燃料からの分離に向けた行動を起こす必要があります。Swansea, Cardiff, Carmarthenshire, Monmouthshire, Powys などのいくつかの議会は、化石燃料からの資金分離に賛成しているが、最終的には基金の管理委員会が決定する必要がある。

Oslo Climate Budget:


When Oslo launched its budget in 2017, the city began tracking its carbon emissions alongside its finances. It’s the first of its kind; a pioneering approach which the city considers to be its most important tool for achieving its climate targets.


By introducing a Climate Budget along with the financial budget we aim to count carbon reductions the way we count money. 

-Raymond Johansen, Governing Mayor of Oslo



Oslo’s climate budget is a good example of how a region can prioritise, measure and fund the actions needed to ensure it is meeting its climate targets. Oslo also has an ambitious goal of being zero carbon by 2030. Local governments and businesses work collaboratively and are responsible for implementing the measures in the budget and report progress three times during the year.


For my full evidence, assessment, key findings and advice please see the section on Decarbonisation in Chapter 5: Areas of Focus.

私の全証拠、評価、主要な発見とアドバイスについては、「第5章 重点分野」の「脱炭素化」のセクションをご覧ください。

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